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An abstract represents a summary of the paper in academic databases and may serve as a standalone information source.
It is published separately from the rest of the paper, is available through the journal website to a wide audience of readers and is indexed by search engines.
The abstract should be sufficiently informative to make the gist of the research clear to the reader.
The abstract must be between 100 and 250 words.
One of the most common ways to structure an abstract is to briefly summarize the paper content, describing the research aims, methods and the results obtained.
The text of the abstract should not repeat or rephrase the paper title.
The abstract must be concise and clear and contain no irrelevant information.
The language used should be consistent with that of academic and technical documents while avoiding complex grammatical structures.
The abstract must be cohesive, its sentences logically following one another.
Keywords from the paper’s body should be used.
It is best advised to avoid uncommon abbreviations in the abstract as well as in the paper title. (All abbreviations should be expanded within the paper).
The abstract should contain no citations or footnotes.

To summarize, the abstract should be:
- informative (must contain no generalities or redundancy);
- descriptive (capturing the gist of the paper and the research results);
- cohesive (follow the logical structure of the paper);
- clear (must be written in good English);
- concise (should not, as a rule, exceed 250 words).